Quentin Berg University Chair Professor, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Penn State University, Harrisburg, Middletown, Pennsylvania, USA.
Integrated System Approach (ISA) based on system theory is the best to explore, organize and exchange knowledge. It depends on defining every system through its boundary, main processes within this boundary, and exchange with the environment through this boundary. It also relies upon thermodynamics and information theory and is therefore applicable to all kinds of systems which make it most suitable for cross-disciplinary investigations.
Sustainable Development (SD) is complex and cross-disciplinary by its very nature and therefore the ISA is the best to investigate its different subsystems. Among the most important subsystems of SD are Integrated Bio-Refineries (IBRs) and their subsystems of bio-fuels. The ISA is the tool used to investigate SD in this paper with special emphasis on bio-fuels and BRIs.
The matrix of bio-fuels and other bio-products forming the main skeleton of BRIs represents the most efficient and economical utilization of biomass which is renewable and contributes considerably towards achieving sustainability. Some novel processes for improving the production efficiency for bio-hydrogen, bio-ethanol and FT-bio-diesel are presented, discussed and routes for further development explored.